The Brain Board with Wozanium Pack
The Brain Board
my firmware board page
for information on a prototype version of this board.
brain board is a firmware board for your Apple II/Apple II plus or
Apple IIe computer. The board uses inexpensive and readily available
27c128 or 27c256 PROMs. Because of the denser PROMs used, 6 sockets
replaced with one and the resulting size of the board is reduced to
under 3 by 4 inches. The original Apple firmware board was able to
replace motherboard ROM functionality with it’s own
This allowed an Apple II to have Applesoft in ROM or an Apple II
to have Integer basic in ROM. A softswitch (flip-flop) is included
which allows for switching between the firmware card and motherboard
ROMs through software control. The board also includes a little
and seldom used capability that allows multiple firmware cards to
coexist in the same system as long as they are in adjacent slots.
Firmware cards were normally located in slot 0, but they could be
located in any slot.
Later on in time, a 16K ram
was developed that had the same functionality, except the
BASIC was loaded into the language card from disk when DOS was
The multiple card support was dropped.
design of the
Brain Board includes all the capability of the Applesoft/Integer
Firmware ROM board that Apple Computer released around 1978
addition, I have added several enhancements in order to maximize
usefulness of the board.
switch for enable/disable
- a software controlled
switch (soft switch) for changing between motherboard ROMs
board ROMs jumper for enabling monitor ROM F8 - this was a
jumper in the Apple design
- daisy chain enable
functionality via DMA bus connections for multiple card support
modified design will allow booting a ROM-less motherboard into
which is not possible with the original firmware board 27C256
allow support of two complete ROM images on the Brain Board.
both Applesoft and Integer BASIC with matching monitors could be
installed and used from the single PROM.
- An extra
is used to select whether the high or low half of the PROM is in
This soft switch can be configured by external switch, through
control or by jumper.
- The Apple II peripheral bus
signal is connected to the lowest 256 bytes of the PROM bank
currently selected by the bank select flip flop. I/O select is
connected to a different address depending upon the slot the
located in. Slot 0 does not have a I/O select signal, so this
cannot be used if the Brain Board is installed in slot 0. The
address for these 256 bytes is computed by multiplying 0x100 by
slot number and adding 0xC000. Thus slot 1 is 0xC100, slot 2 is
low bank of the PROM provided with the Brain Board optionally
a special program that will transform your Apple II into a operating
facsimile of an original Apple 1 with 16K of expanded memory. This
expanded memory was an authentic modification made to a number of
original Apple 1s. If the Brain Board is installed in slot 1, you
also obtain access to an authentic Apple Cassette Interface (ACI)
driver located at address C100, just like the original Apple 1.
and output to your transformed Apple is now limited to the keyboard,
video and cassette interfaces, also just like an original Apple 1.
Software in PROM is limited to a ported version of the orignal Apple
monitor and the latest known version of Apple 1 BASIC (the so called
Huston Basic) which is located at the same address in memory (E000)
it would be located at, in an actual Apple 1.
Apple will be able to run most original Apple 1 assembly and BASIC
programs. Programs must either be keyed in through the monitor or
loaded via the ACI (Apple Cassette Interface). No other options are
standard, though you could add drivers for serial ports or other
expansion cards, if you wished to. More details are provided in the
Example Wozanium Pack - User
Wozanium Pack provides a capability for user device drivers
input and output. Applications that directly access the Apple
PIA for keyboard input may or may not access the hooks that are used
enable these drivers depending upon how they are implemented.
Here is a simple example driver for the Super
(slot 2 only). This driver should be loaded into locations
605B using the cassette interface. Once loaded type 6000R to
initialize the driver. Here is an AIF encoded version
of this driver ready for loading onto your digital music player.
;ODD PARITY, NO ECHO, RTS LOW/W NO INT, IRQ DISABLED, DTR LOW
;1 STOP BIT, 7 DATA BITS, 9600 BAUD
;SAVE OLD VECTORS
;OVERWRITE VECTORS WITH NEW FUNCTIONS
;SAVE BYTE TO WRITE
ACIASTAT ;READ STATUS REGISTER
;TRANSMIT REGISTER EMPTY?
;WAIT FOR EMPTRY
;CHARACTER TO WRITE
STA ACIADATA ;WRITE IT
; RETURN, WITHOUT DISPLAY
JMP (WRITERET) ; RETURN, AND DISPLAY
(READRET) ;ALLOW KEYBOARD INPUT TO OCCUR
LDA ACIASTAT ;READ STATUS REGISTER
;READ READISTER FULL
;NO, WAIT FOR CHAR TO ARRIVE
ACIADATA ;FETCH CHARACTER
;SET MS BIT - APPLE 1 ASSUMES THIS
WRITERET DC.W 1
Video Demo of the Wozanium Pack
the first public demo of the "BRAIN BOARD" on my video
My Blog Posts Related to the Brain Board/Wozanium Pack
Brain Board with Wozanium Pack
Assembly and Operations Guide
to download Version 5.3.1 of the manual in PDF format.
Wozanium Pack Source Code
Build with the 6502 DASM cross assembler.
Use the following command line:dasm a2a1emulv5_1.asm -DBLD4ROMBD=0
-DHUSTNBASIC=0 -oa2a1rbh.o -la2a1rbh.lst
in this zip is
download Version 5.1.
- Apple 1 BASIC modified to run on
copyright at beginning of this file)
- COPYING.txt - GNU lincense
- a2a1emulv5_1.asm - Wozanium source code
- a2a1emulv5_1.lst - Listing
- a2a1emulv5_1.o - Object file
- a2a1emulv5_1.rom - 12K rom file that can be used with A2
emulators, such as Virtual II.
included in this zip package, is a ROM file suitable for emulators,
such as Virtual II. This allows you to run and debug Apple 1
in the Apple II emulator environment. Just select the .ROM file as
ROM for your machine and reset your virtual machine. Just as in the
Brain Board, right arrow will clear the screen. Using the
emulated cassette interface built into Virtual II, you can download
files of A1 basic and assembly language programs and run them in
emulated Apple II. Note that this ROM version does not include
the ACI driver at C100, so you must enter the cassette driver by
entering “D000R”, instead.
Your Own Brain Board Kit
Due to popular demand, I have made a second run of Brain Board
kits. They are $59. Postage is free within the USA, and $10
for international shipments. Contact me: email@example.com for